(Photo: Bar and Bench)

Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.  Domestic violence may be used as a synonym for intimate partner violence, which is committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. In the broadest sense, domestic violence can also involve violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It takes a number of forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, religious, reproductive and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation, and acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death. Domestic murders include stoning, bride burning, honor killing and dowry death(which sometimes involve non-cohabitating family members). 

FORMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Physical abuse is that involving contact intended to cause fear, pain, injury, other physical suffering or bodily harm. In the context of coercive control, physical abuse is to control the victim. Physical violence can be the culmination of other abusive behavior, such as threats, intimidation, and restriction of victim self-determination through isolation, manipulation and other limitations of personal freedom. Denying medical care, sleep deprivation, and forced drug or alcohol use, are also forms of physical abuse.

Sexual abuse, is defined by World Health Organization as any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person's sexuality using coercion. Aside from initiation of the sexual act through physical force, sexual abuse occurs if a person is verbally pressured into consenting, unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, unable to decline participation, or unable to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act. This could be because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or due to intimidation or pressure.

Emotional abuse includes minimizing threats, isolation,  public humiliation, unrelenting criticism. Stalking is a common form of psychological intimidation. Victims tend to feel their partner has nearly total control over them, greatly affecting the power dynamic in a relationship, empowering the perpetrator, and disempowering the victim. Victims often suffer from depression, putting them at increased risk of eating disorders, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse.

Economic abuse (or financial abuse) is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources. Marital assets are used as a means of control. Economic abuse diminishes the victim's capacity to support themselves, increasing dependence on the perpetrator, including reduced access to education, employment, career advancement, and assets acquirement. Forcing or pressuring a family member to sign documents, to sell things, or to change a will are forms of economic abuse.

 CAUSES

A partner’s domination may take the form of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. Studies suggest that violent behavior often is caused by an interaction of situational and individual factors. That means that abusers learn violent behavior from their family, people in their community and other cultural influences as they grow up. They may have seen violence often or they may have been victims themselves. Some abusers acknowledge growing up having been abused as a child.

Children who witness or are the victims of violence may learn to believe that violence is a reasonable way to resolve conflict between people. Boys who learn that women are not to be valued or respected and who see violence directed against women are more likely to abuse women when they grow up. Girls who witness domestic violence in their families of origin are more likely to be victimized by their own husbands. Although women are most often the victim of domestic violence, the gender roles can and are reversed sometimes.

Alcohol and drugs may contribute to violent behavior. A drunk or high person will be less likely to control his or her violent impulses toward their partner, so keeping such drinking or drug use episodes to a minimum may be valuable for a person living in a domestic violence situation.

No cause of domestic violence, however, justifies the actions of the abuser, nor should it be used as a rationale for their behavior. These possible causes are only to better understand why an abuser believes it is acceptable to abuse their partner physically, sexually, psychologically or emotionally. Ultimately an abuser needs to get help for their unhealthy and destructive behavior, or find themselves living a solitary and lonely life.

 STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

        1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men will experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime. (CDC, 2017)

        1 in 10 women in the United States will be raped by an intimate partner in her lifetime. (CDC, 2010)

    Approximately 16.9% of women and 8.0% of men will experience sexual violence other than rape by an intimate partner at some point in their lifetime. (CDC, 2010)

        Data on sexual violence against men may be underreported.

        An estimated 9.7% of women and 2.3% of men have been stalked by an intimate partner during their lifetime. (CDC, 2017)

        Nearly half of all women and men in the United States will experience psychological aggression by an intimate partner in their lifetime. (CDC, 2017)

GOVERNMENT SCHEMES TO CURB DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

  • Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao, meant for uplifting women in the sphere of women’s education
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Account, meant to help families’ save for their daughters
  • One Stop Center scheme meant to offer easy access for women suffering from domestic abuse or violence, and needing support
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana meant to offer free LPG connections to women living below poverty line
  • Mahila Haat meant to support women entrepreneurs and women self-help groups
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche Scheme for Children of Working Mothers meant to provide affordable daycare services to working women
  • Maternity Benefit Scheme meant for pregnant women and lactating mothers
  • Women’s Helpline 1091 meant to provide emergency assistance to women in trouble, especially those facing violence of any kind
WHAT CAN WE DO?

        Calling the police if you see or hear evidence of domestic violence.

        Speak out publicly against domestic violence.

        Consider reaching out to your neighbor, friends, family.

        Educating others on domestic violence.

        Organize campaigns special in rural areas.

  •   Donating to domestic violence counselling programs




About Simran Saluja

This is a short description in the author block about the author. You edit it by entering text in the "Biographical Info" field in the user admin panel.

0 Comments :

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.